Rapeseed-Mustard production in India
Mustard is the second most important oilseed in India after Soybean. It accounts for nearly 25% of the total oilseed production in India. Mustard seeds are used for extraction of edible vegetable oil which is used for cooking. As per the 2014-15 data Rapeseed-Mustard production in India was 72.82 lakh tonnes. India is third largest mustard producing country in the world after China and Canada. India accounts for nearly 12% of world production.
Primarily Mustard is a Rabi crop and its seeds are sown in October-November. Harvesting time is in late February to March. In some cooler parts of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttrakhand it is grown in summers too. Continuously low temperatures (above fridging point) is beneficial for the growth of mustard. Winter rains due to western disturbances in the months of January & February significantly enhances the Yield.
Rapeseed-Mustard production in India
In 2013-14 mustard was grown in 64.54 lakh hectares. Due to the poor monsoon, next year there was a significant reduction in the net sown area. Various climatic factors such as monsoon in the previous season, rain and hailstorms when the crops are in the fields, and temperature variation greatly influence the production. Rapeseed-Mustard production in India is mainly done in Central and Northern parts of the country. As the climatic conditions required for the crops is suitable in these regions. The map below has highlighted the major production areas.
While analysing the mustard production following points must be taken into account
- There is a yearly fluctuation in mustard production in various states and in the country as a whole.
- Due to the above reason, there is certain variation in production and % share in production of the various states.
- Rajasthan is the largest producer & Mustard is sown in rainfed areas so monsoon in previous season and rains due to western disturbances affect the production and yield.
Top mustard producing states of India
These are the Top mustard producing states of India with yearly production and important producing districts.
Rajasthan is the number one state in terms of mustard production. In 2014-15 the total mustard production in Rajasthan was 28.96 lakh tonne which is 43% of the national production. Rajasthan is a water deficit state and it has vast land resources. As mustard can be grown in rainfed areas with very little or no irrigation facilities, which makes Rajasthan as an ideal state for mustard production. Eastern Rajasthan has a Monopoly in mustard production. Alwar is the leading mustard producing state. Other districts are Tonk, Ganganagar, Sawai Madhopur, Dausa, Karauli, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Jaipur.
2.0 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is second largest mustard producing state of India. Its share in national production was 14% as per the latest survey. In Uttar Pradesh, mustard is grown in irrigated land as a cash crop substitute of Sugar Cane. The Western and Central part of the state has major mustard growing districts. Agra, Mathura, Jhansi, Aligarh, Hatras, Saharanpur, Kanpur, Hapur, Varanasi and Lalitpur.
3.0 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh is the third largest mustard producing state with 11% of national production. Due to the warmer climatic conditions the mustard Yield in Madhya Pradesh is significantly lower than the national average. The important mustard producing districts are Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Sheopur, Neemuch, Shivpuri, Datia & Guna.
With 8% share in National production, Haryana is the fourth largest mustard producing state of India. The entire Haryana is having very good irrigation facilities so mustard is also sown in irrigated land. Mustard yield in Haryana is above the national production. The important mustard growing districts are Sirsa, Fatehabad, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Bhiwani, Jhajjar and Hisar.
5.0 West Bengal
West Bengal grows nearly 6% mustard of India. It is grown in almost all the districts of Southern Bengal. The major producing districts are Birbhum, Malda, Nadia, Mursidabad & Burdhman.
Other mustard Producing States
Other than the above five states, mustard is grown in Gujarat, Assam, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, Punjab and some parts of Jammu Kashmir. Gujarat is having very high yield.